施行 昭和22年 5月3日 (補則)
November 3, 1946



We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in the National Diet, determined that we shall secure for ourselves and our posterity the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all nations and the blessings of liberty throughout this land, and resolved that never again shall we be visited with the horrors of war through the action of government, do proclaim that sovereign power resides with the people and do firmly establish this Constitution. 

Government is a sacred trust of the people, the authority for which is derived from the people, the powers of which are exercised by the representatives of the people, and the benefits of which are enjoyed by the people. This is a universal principle of mankind upon which this Constitution is founded. determined to preserve our security and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world.We reject and revoke all constitutions, laws ordinances, and rescripts in conflict herewith.

We, the Japanese people, desire peace for all time and are deeply conscious of the high ideals controlling human relationship and we have determined to preserve our security and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world.

We desire to occupy an honored place in an international society striving for the preservation of peace, and the banishment of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance for all time from the earth. We recognize that all peoples of the world have the right to live in peace, free from fear and want.

We believe that no nation is responsible to itself alone, but that laws of political morality are universal; and that obedience to such laws is incumbent upon all nations who would sustain their own sovereignty and justify their sovereign relationship with other nations.

We, the Japanese people, pledge our national honor to accomplish these high ideals and purposes with all our resources.

第1章 天皇 


第1条 天皇の地位
Article 1

The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power.

第2条 皇位の継承
Article 2

The Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial House Law passed by the Diet.

第3条 天皇の国事行為に対する責任
Article 3

The advice and approval of the Emperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet shall be responsible therefor.

第4条 天皇の機能
Article 4

The Emperor shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in this Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government.

2) The Emperor may delegate the performance of his acts in matters of state as may be provided for by law.

第5条 摂政
Article 5

When, in accordance with the Imperial House Law, a Regency is established, the Regent shall perform his acts in matters of state in the Emperor's name. In this case, paragraph one of the preceding Article will be applicable.

第6条 天皇の任命権
Article 6

The Emperor shall appoint the Prime Minister as designated by the Emperor shall appoint the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet.

第7条 国事行為
Article 7

The Emperor shall, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people:

1 憲法改正、法律、政令及び条約を公布すること。 
(1) Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, laws, cabinet orders and treaties.

2 国会を召集すること。 
(2) Convocation of the Diet.

3 衆議院を解散すること。 
(3) Dissolution of the House of Representatives.

4 国会議員の総選挙の施行を公示すること。 
(4) Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet.

5 国務大臣及び法律の定めるその他の官吏の任免並びに全権委任状及び大使及び公使の信任状を認証すること。 
(5) Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, and of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers.

6 大赦、特赦、減刑、刑の執行の免除及び復権を認証すること。 
(6) Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.

7 栄典を授与すること。 
(7)Awarding of honors.

8 批准書及び法律の定めるところその他の外交文書を認証すること。 
(8) Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law.

9 外国の大使及び公使を接受すること。 
(9) Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers.

10 儀式を行ふこと。
(10) Performance of ceremonial functions.

第8条 皇室の財産授受
Article 8

No property can be given to, or received by, the Imperial House, nor can any gifts be made therefrom, without the authorization of the Diet.

第2章 戦争放棄 

第9条 戦争放棄、軍備及び交戦権否認
Article 9

Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes.

2) In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

第3章 国民の権利及び義務

第10条 国民の要件
Article 10

The conditions necessary for being a Japanese national shall be determined by law.

第11条 基本的人権の不可侵
Article 11

The people shall not be prevented from enjoying any of the fundamental human rights. These fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights.

第12条 自由・権利の保持の責任とその濫用の禁止
Article 12

The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be maintained by the constant endeavor of the people, who shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare.

第13条 個人の尊重
Article 13

All of the people shall be respected as individuals. Their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness shall, to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare, be the supreme consideration in legislation and in other governmental affairs.

第14条 法の下の平等
Article 14

All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status or family origin.

2) Peers and peerage shall not be recognized.

3) No privilege shall accompany any award of honor, decoration or any distinction, nor shall any such award be valid beyond the lifetime of the individual who now holds or hereafter may receive it.

第15条 公務員の選定及び罷免の権利、普通選挙と秘密選挙の保障
Article 15

The people have the inalienable right to choose their public officials and to dismiss them.

2) All public officials are servants of the whole community and not of any group thereof.

3) Universal adult suffrage is guaranteed with regard to the election of public officials.

4) In all elections, secrecy of the ballot shall not be violated. A voter shall not be answerable, publicly or privately, for the choice he has made.

第16条 請願権
Article 16

Every person shall have the right of peaceful petition for the redress of damage, for the removal of public officials, for the enactment, repeal or amendment of laws, ordinances or regulations and for other matters; nor shall any person be in any way discriminated against for sponsoring such a petition.

第17条 国及び公共団体の賠償責任
Article 17

Every person may sue for redress as provided by law from the State or a public entity, in case he has suffered damage through illegal act of any public official.

第18条 奴隷的拘束及び苦役からの自由
Article 18

No person shall be held in bondage of any kind. Involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime, is prohibited.

第19条 思想及び良心の自由
Article 19

Freedom of thought and conscience shall not be violated.

第20条 信教の自由
Article 20

:Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority.

2) No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious acts, celebration, rite or practice.

3) The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity.

第21条 集会・結社・表現の自由と通信の秘密
Article 21

Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed.

2) No censorship shall be maintained, nor shall the secrecy of any means of communication be violated.

第22条 居住・移転及び職業選択の自由、外国移住及び国籍離脱の自由
Article 22

Every person shall have freedom to choose and change his residence and to choose his occupation to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare.

2) Freedom of all persons to move to a foreign country and to divest themselves of their nationality shall be inviolate.

第23条 学問の自由
Article 23

Academic freedom is guaranteed.

第24条 家族生活における個人の尊厳と両性の平等
Article 24

Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.

2) With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.

第25条 生存権、国の社会的使命
Article 25

All people shall have the right to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living.

2) In all spheres of life, the State shall use its endeavors for the promotion and extension of social welfare and security, and of public health.

第26条 教育に関する権利と義務
Article 26

All people shall have the right to receive an equal education correspondent to their ability, as provided for by law.

2) All people shall be obligated to have all boys and girls under their protection receive ordinary education as provided for by law. Such compulsory education shall be free.

第27条 勤労の権利・義務、労働条件、児童酷使の禁止
Article 27

All people shall have the right and the obligation to work.

2) Standards for wages, hours, rest and other working conditions shall be fixed by law. 

3) Children shall not be exploited.

第28条 勤労者の団結権
Article 28

The right of workers to organize and to bargain and act collectively is guaranteed.

第29条 財産権
Article 29

The right to own or to hold property is inviolable.

2) Property rights shall be defined by law, in conformity with the public welfare.

3) Private property may be taken for public use upon just compensation therefor.

第30条 納税の義務
Article 30

The people shall be liable to taxation as provided for by law.

第31条 法定の手続の保障
Article 31

No person shall be deprived of life or liberty, nor shall any other criminal penalty be imposed, except according to procedure established by law.

第32条 裁判を受ける権利
Article 32

No person shall be denied the right of access to the courts.

第33条 不当な逮捕をされない権利
Article 33

No person shall be apprehended except upon warrant issued by a competent judicial officer which specifies the offense with which the person is charged, unless he is apprehended, the offense being committed.

第34条 抑留・拘束の禁止
Article 34

No person shall be arrested or detained without being at once informed of the charges against him or without the immediate privilege of counsel; nor shall he be detained without adequate cause; and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediately shown in open court in his presence and the presence of his counsel.

第35条 住居不可侵
Article 35

The right of all persons to be secure in their homes, papers and effects against entries, searches and seizures shall not be impaired except upon warrant issued for adequate cause and particularly describing the place to be searched and things to be seized, or except as provided by Article 33.

2) Each search or seizure shall be made upon separate warrant issued by a competent judicial officer.

第36条 拷問と残虐刑の禁止
Article 36

The infliction of torture by any public officer and cruel punishments are absolutely forbidden.

第37条 刑事被告人の権利
Article 37

In all criminal cases the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial tribunal.

2) He shall be permitted full opportunity to examine all witnesses, and he shall have the right of compulsory process for obtaining witnesses on his behalf at public expense.

3) At all times the accused shall have the assistance of competent counsel who shall, if the accused is unable to secure the same by his own efforts, be assigned to his use by the State.

第38条 自白の証拠能力
Article 38

No person shall be compelled to testify against himself.

2) Confession made under compulsion, torture or threat, or after prolonged arrest or detention shall not be admitted in evidence.

3) No person shall be convicted or punished in cases where the only proof against him is his own confession.

第39条 遡及処罰・二重処罰の禁止
Article 39

No person shall be held criminally liable for an act which was lawful at the time it was committed, or of which he had been acquitted, nor shall he be placed in double jeopardy.

第40条 刑事補償
Article 40

Any person may, in case he is acquitted after he has been arrested or detained, sue the State for redress as provided for by law.

第4章 国会

第41条 国会の地位
Article 41

The Diet shall be the highest organ of the state power, and shall be the sole law-making organ of the State.

第42条 両院制
Article 42

The Diet shall consist of two Houses, namely the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.

第43条 両議院の組織
Article 43

Both Houses shall consist of elected members, representative of all the people.

2) The number of the members of each House shall be fixed by law.

第44条 平等選挙
Article 44

The qualifications of members of both Houses and their electors shall be fixed by law. However, there shall be no discrimination because of race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income.

第45条 衆議院議員の任期
Article 45

The term of office of members of the House of Representatives shall be four years. However, the term shall be terminated before the full term is up in case the House of Representatives is dissolved.

第46条 参議院議員の任期
Article 46

The term of office of members of the House of Councillors shall be six years, and election for half the members shall take place every three years.

第47条 選挙に関する事項
Article 47

Electoral districts, method of voting and other matters pertaining to the method of election of members of both Houses shall be fixed by law.

第48条 両院議員兼職の禁止
Article 48

No person shall be permitted to be a member of both Houses simultaneously.

第49条 歳費
Article 49

Members of both Houses shall receive appropriate annual payment from the national treasury in accordance with law.

第50条 議員の不逮捕特権
Article 50

Except in cases as provided for by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from apprehension while the Diet is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the House.

第51条 議員の発言・表決の無責任
Article 51

Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates or votes cast inside the House.

第52条 常会
Article 52

An ordinary session of the Diet shall be convoked once per year.

第53条 臨時会
Article 53

The Cabinet may determine to convoke extraordinary sessions of the Diet. When a quarter or more of the total members of either House makes the demand, the Cabinet must determine on such convocation.

第54条 衆議院の解散と総選挙・参議院の緊急集会
Article 54

When the House of Representatives is dissolved, there must be a general election of members of the House of Representatives within forty(40) days from the date of dissolution, and the Diet must be convoked within thirty(30) days from the date of the election.

2) When the House of Representatives is dissolved, the House of Councillors is closed at the same time. However, the Cabinet may, in time of national emergency, convoke the House of Councillors in emergency session.

3) Measures taken at such session as mentioned in the proviso of the preceding paragraph shall be provisional and shall become null and void unless agreed to by the House of Representatives within a period of ten(10) days after the opening of the next session of the Diet.

第55条 資格争訟の裁判
Article 55

Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications of its members. However, in order to deny a seat to any member, it is necessary to pass a resolution by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.

第56条 定足数・表決
Article 56

Business cannot be transacted in either House unless one-third or more of total membership is present.

2) All matters shall be decided, in each House, by a majority of those present, except as elsewhere provided for in the Constitution, and in case of a tie, the presiding officer shall decide the issue.

第57条 会議の公開と会議録
Article 57

Deliberation in each House shall be public. However, a secret meeting may be held where a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present passes a resolution therefor.

2) Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and given general circulation, excepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as may be deemed to require secrecy.

3) Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members on any matter shall be recorded in the minutes.

第58条 役員選任・議員規則・懲罰
Article 58

Each House shall select its own president and other officials.

2) Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon.

第59条 法律の成立と衆議院の優越
Article 59

A bill becomes a law on passage by both Houses, except as otherwise provided for by the Constitution.

2) A bill, which is passed by the House of Representatives, and upon which the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, becomes a law when passed a second time by the House of Representatives by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.

3) The provision of the preceding paragraph does not preclude the House of Representatives from calling for the meeting of a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law.

4) Failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within sixty(60) days after receipt of a bill passed by the House of Representatives, time in recess excepted, may be determined by the House of Representatives to constitute a rejection of the said bill by the House of Councillors.

第60条 予算議決と衆議院の優越
Article 60

The budget must first be submitted to the House of Representatives.

2) Upon consideration of the budget, when the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, and when no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or in the case of failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within thirty(30) days, the period of recess excluded, after the receipt of the budget passed by the House of Representatives, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

第61条 条約の承認と衆議院の優越
Article 61

The second paragraph of the preceding Article applies also the the Diet approval required for the conclusion of treaties.

第62条 国勢調査権
Article 62

Each House may conduct investigations in relation to government, and may demand the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records.

第63条 閣僚の議院出席
Article 63

The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State may, at any time, appear in either House for the purpose of speaking on bills, regardless of whether they are members of the House or not. They must appear when their presence is required in order to give answers or explanations.

第64条 弾劾裁判所
Article 64

The Diet shall set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Houses for the purposes of trying those judges against whom removal proceedings have been instituted.

2) Matters relating to impeachment shall be provided for by law.

第5章 内閣

第65条 行政権
Article 65

Executive power shall be vested in the Cabinet.

第66条 内閣の組織と責任
Article 66

The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister, who shall be its head, and other Ministers of State, as provided for by law.

2) The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State must be civilians.

3) The Cabinet shall, in the exercise of executive power, be collectively responsible to the Diet.

第67条 内閣総理大臣の使命と衆議院の優越
Article 67

The Prime Minister shall be designated from among the members of the Diet by a resolution of the Diet. This designation shall precede all other business.

2) If the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors disagree and if no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or the House of Councillors fails to make designation within ten(10) days, exclusive of the period of recess, after the House of Representatives has made designation, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

第68条 国務大臣の任免・罷免
Article 68

The Prime Minister shall appoint the Ministers of State. However, a majority of their number must be chosen from among the members of the Diet.

2) The Prime Minister may remove the Ministers of State as he chooses.

第69条 内閣の総辞職(1)
Article 69

If the House of Representatives passes a non-confidence resolution, or rejects a confidence resolution, the Cabinet shall resign en masse, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within ten(10) days.

第70条 内閣の総辞職(2)
Article 70

When there is a vacancy in the post of Prime Minister, or upon the first convocation of the Diet after a general election of members of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet shall resign en masse.

第71条 総辞職後の内閣
Article 71

In the cases mentioned in the two preceding Articles, the Cabinet shall continue its functions until the time when a new Prime Minister is appointed.

第72条 内閣総理大臣の職務
Article 72

The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercises control and supervision over various administrative branches.

第73条 内閣の職務
Article 73

The Cabinet shall, in addition to other general administrative functions, perform the following functions:

1 法律を誠実に執行し、国務を総理すること。 
(1) Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state.
2 外交関係を処理すること。 
(2) Manage foreign affairs.
3 条約を締結すること。但し、事前に、時宜によっては事後に、国会の承認を経ることを必要とする。 
(3) Conclude treaties. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances sudsequent approval of the Diet.
4 法律の定める基準に従ひ、官吏に関する事務を掌理すること。 
(4) Administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law.
5 予算を作成して国会に提出すること。この憲法及び法律の規定を実施するために、政令を制定すること。 
(5) Prepare the budget, and present it to the cabinet orders in order to execute the provisions of this Constitution and of the law.
6 但し、政令には、特にその法律の委任がある場合を除いては、罰則を設けることができない。
However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized by such law.
7 大赦、特赦、減刑、刑の執行の免除及び復権を決定すること。
(7) Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.

第74条 法律・政令の署名
Article 74

All laws and cabinet orders shall be signed by the competent Minister of State and countersigned by the Prime Minister.

第75条 国務大臣の特典
Article 75

The Ministers of State shall not, during their tenure of office, be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister. However, the right to take that action is not impaired hereby.

第6章 司法 

第76条 司法権及びその行使
Article 76

The whole judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as are established by law.

2) No extraordinary tribunal shall be established, nor shall any organ or agency of the Executive be given final judicial power.

3) All judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this Constitution and the laws.

第77条 最高裁判所の規則制定権
Article 77

The Supreme Court is vested with the rule-making power under which it determines the rules of procedure and of practice, and of matters relating to attorneys, the internal discipline of the courts and the administration of judicial affairs.

2) Public procurators shall be subject to the rule-making power of the Supreme Court.

3) The Supreme Court may delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to such courts.

第78条 裁判官の身分保障
Article 78

Judges shall not be removed except by public impeachment unless judicially declared mentally or physically incompetent to perform official duties. No disciplinary action against judges shall be administered by any executive organ or agency.

第79条 最高裁判所の裁判官
Article 79

The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Judge and such number of judges as may be determined by law; all such judges excepting the Chief Judge shall be appointed by the Cabinet.


2) The appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court shall be reviewed by the people at the first general election of members of the House of Representatives following their appointment, and shall be reviewed again at the first general election of members of the House of Representatives after a lapse of ten(10) years, and in the same manner thereafter.

第80条 下級裁判所の裁判官
Article 80

The judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the Cabinet from a list of persons nominated by the Supreme Court. All such judges shall hold office for a term of ten(10) years with privilege of reappointment, provided that they shall be retired upon the attainment of the age as fixed by law.

2) The judges of the inferior courts shall receive, at regular stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

第81条 法令審査権
Article 81

The Supreme Court is the court of last resort with power to determine the constitutionality of any law, order, regulation or official act.

第82条 裁判の公開
Article 82

Trials shall be conducted and judgement declared publicly. 

2) Where a court unanimously determines publicity to be dangerous to public order or morals, a trial may be conducted privately, but trials of political offenses, offenses involving the press or cases wherein the rights of people as guaranteed in CHAPTER III of this Constitution are in question shall always be conducted publicly.

第7章 財政 

第83条 財政処理の基本原則
Article 83

The power to administer national finances shall be exercised as the Diet shall determine.

第84条 課税
Article 84

No new taxes shall be imposed or existing ones modified except by law or under such conditions as law may prescribe.

第85条 国費の支出と債務負担
Article 85

:No money shall be expended, nor shall the State obligate itself, except as authorized by the Diet.

第86条 予算
Article 86

The Cabinet shall prepare and submit to the Diet for its consideration and decision a budget for each fiscal year.

第87条 予備費
Article 87

In order to provide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget, a reserve fund may be authorized by the Diet to be expended upon the responsibility of the Cabinet must get subsequent approval of the Diet for all payments from the reserve fund.

第88条 皇室の財産と費用
Article 88

All property of the Imperial Household shall belong to the State. All expenses of the Imperial Household shall be appropriated by the Diet in the budget.

第89条 公の財産の利用の制限
Article 89

No public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use, benefit or maintenance of any religious institution or association, or for any charitable, educational or benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority.

第90条 会計検査院
Article 90

Final accounts of the expenditures and revenues of the State shall be audited annually by a Board of Audit and submitted by the Diet, together with the statement of audit, during the fiscal year immediately following the period covered.

2) The organization and competency of the Board of Audit shall be determined by law.

第91条 財政状況の報告
Article 91

At regular intervals and at least annually the Diet and the people on the state of national finances.

第8章 地方自治 

第92条 地方自治の基本原則
Article 92

Regulations concerning organization and operations of local public entities shall be fixed by law in accordance with the principle of local autonomy.

第93条 議会の設置及び長・議員の選挙
Article 93

The local public entities shall establish assemblies as their deliberative organs, in accordance with law.

2) The chief executive officers of all local public entities, the members of their assemblies, and such other local officials as may be determined by law shall be elected by direct popular vote within their several communities.

第94条 地方公共団体の機能
Article 94

Local public entities shall have the right to manage their property, affairs and administration and to enact their own regulations within law.

第95条 特別法の住民投票
Article 95

A special law, applicable only to one local public entity, cannot be enacted by the Diet without the consent of the majority of the voters of the local public entity concerned, obtained in accordance with law.

第9章 改正 


第96条 改正の手続
Article 96

Amendments to this Constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all the members of each House and shall thereupon be submitted to the people for ratification, which shall require the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes cast thereon, at a special referendum or at such election as the Diet shall specify.

2) Amendments when so ratified shall immediately be promulgated by the Emperor in the name of the people, as an integral part of this Constitution.

第10章 最高法規 

第97条 基本的人権の本質
Article 97

The fundamental human rights by this Constitution guaranteed to the people of Japan are fruits of the age-old struggle of man to be free; they have survived the many exacting tests for durability and are conferred upon this and future generations in trust, to be held for all time inviolate.

第98条 最高法規性、条約及び国際法規の遵守
Article 98

This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the nation and no law, ordinance, imperial rescript or other act of government, or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof, shall have legal force or validity.

2) The treaties concluded by Japan and established laws of nations shall be faithfully observed.

第99条 憲法尊重擁護の義務
Article 99

The Emperor or the Regent as well as Ministers of State, members of the Diet, judges, and all other public officials have the obligation to respect and uphold this Constitution.

第11章 補則 

第100条 憲法施行期日、準備手続
Article 100

This Constitution shall be enforced as from the day when the period of six months will have elapsed counting from the day of its promulgation.

2) The enactment of laws necessary for the enforcement of this Constitution, the election of members of the House of Councillors and the procedure for the convocation of the Diet and other preparatory procedures necessary for the enforcement of this Constitution may be executed before the day prescribed in the preceding paragraph.

第101条 経過規定 ― 参議院未成立の間の国会
Article 101

If the House of Councillors is not constituted before the effective date of this Constitution, the House of Representatives shall function as the Diet until such time as the House of Councillors shall be constituted.

第102条 同前 ― 第1期の参議院議員の任期
Article 102

The term of office for half the members of the House of Councillors serving in the first term under this Constitution shall be three years. Members falling under this category shall be determined in accordance with law.

第103条 同前 ― 公務員の地位
Article 103

The Ministers of State, members of the House of Representatives, and judges in office on the effective date of this Constitution, and all other public officials who occupy positions corresponding to such positions as are recognized by this Constitution shall not forfeit their positions automatically on account of the enforcement of this Constitution unless otherwise specified by law. When, however, successors are elected or appointed under the provisions of this Constitution, they shall forfeit their positions as a matter of course.

             施行 昭和22年 5月3日 (補則)

I rejoice that the foundation for the construction of a new Japan has been laid according to the will of the Japanese people, and hereby sanction and promulgate the amendments of the Imperial Japanese Constitution effected following the consultation with the Privy Council and the decision of the Imperial Diet made in accordance with Article 73 of the said Constitution.Signed:HIROHITO, Seal of the Emperor, This third day of the eleventh month of the twenty-first year of Showa (November 3, 1946).

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