ジュネーブ条約追加


今国会に上程されようとしている
ジュネーブ条約追加議定書(第一)の英和対訳は次の通り(完全に対応していない)

【ジュネーブ条約追加第一議定書(抜粋)】

   Part IV. Civilian Population

   Section I. General Protection Against Effects of Hostilities

   Chapter I. Basic rule and field of application

48条(基本原則)
   Art 48. Basic rule

紛争当事国は、文民たる住民及び民用物に対する尊重及び保護のため、常に文民たる住民と戦闘員とを、また民用物と軍事目標とを識別することができるようにする。紛争当事国の軍事行動は、軍事目標のみを対象とする。
   In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian
   population and civilian objects, the Parties to the conflict shall at
   all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants
   and between civilian objects and military objectives and accordingly
   shall direct their operations only against military objectives.




   Chapter II. Civilians and civilian population

51条(文民たる住民保護)
   Art 51. - Protection of the civilian population

1.文民たる住民及び個々の文民は、軍事行動から生ずる危険に対して一般的保護を享有する。この保護を実効的なものとするため他の適用可能な国際法の規則に追加される次の規則は、いかなる状況においても遵守するものとする。
   1. The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general
   protection against dangers arising from military operations. To give
   effect to this protection, the following rules, which are additional to
   other applicable rules of international law, shall be observed in all
   circumstances.

2.文民たる住民全体及び個々の文民は、攻撃の対象としてはならない。(略)  
2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians,
   shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of violence the
   primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian
   population are prohibited.
3.(略)
   3. Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this section,
   unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.



4.無差別攻撃は禁止する。(略)
   4. Indiscriminate attacks are prohibited. Indiscriminate attacks are:
   (a) those which are not directed at a specific military objective;
   (b) those which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be
   directed at a specific military objective; or
   (c) those which employ a method or means of combat the effects of which
   cannot be limited as required by this Protocol;
   and consequently, in each such case, are of a nature to strike military
   objectives and civilians or civilian objects without distinction.

5.(略)
   5. Among others, the following types of attacks are to be considered as
   indiscriminate:

6.復仇の手段として文民たる住民または個々の文民を攻撃することは禁止する。
   6. Attacks against the civilian population or civilians by way of
   reprisals are prohibited.



   Chapter IV. Precautionary measures

58条(攻撃の影響に対する予防措置)
   Art 58. Precautions against the effects of attacks


紛争当事国は、可能な限り最大限まで次のことを行う。
   The Parties to the conflict shall, to the maximum extent feasible:



a.(略)自国の支配の下にある文民たる住民、個々の文民及び民用物を軍事目標の近傍から移動させるように努めること。
   (a) without prejudice to Article 49 of the Fourth Convention, endeavour
   to remove the civilian population, individual civilians and civilian
   objects under their control from the vicinity of military objectives;


b.人口密集地域内またはその付近に軍事目標を設置することを防止すること。
   (b) avoid locating military objectives within or near densely populated
   areas;

c.(略)
   (c) take the other necessary precautions to protect the civilian
   population, individual civilians and civilian objects under their
   control against the dangers resulting from military operations.

   Chapter V. Localities and zones under special protection

59条(無防備地域)
   Art 59. Non-defended localities

1.紛争当事国が無防備地域を攻撃することは、手段のいかんを問わず禁止する。
   1. It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to attack, by any
   means whatsoever, non-defended localities.



2.紛争当事国の適当な当局は、軍隊が接触している地帯の付近またはその中にある居住地で、敵対する紛争当事国による占領のために開放されているものを無防備地域と宣言することができる。無防備地域は、次のすべての条件を満たさなければならない。
   2. The appropriate authorities of a Party to the conflict may declare
   as a non-defended locality any inhabited place near or in a zone where
   armed forces are in contact which is open for occupation by an adverse
   Party.
   Such a locality shall fulfil the following conditions:

a.すべての戦闘員ならびに移動兵器及び移動軍用設備が撤去されてい
ること。
   (a) all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military
   equipment must have been evacuated;

b.固定した軍用の施設または営造物が敵対的目的に使用されていないこと。
   (b) no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or
   establishments;

c.当局または住民により敵対行為が行われていないこと。
   (c) no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by
   the population; and

d.軍事行動を支援する活動が行われていないこと。
   (d) no activities in support of military operations shall be
   undertaken.


”国際人道法”

”国際人道法”
「ジュネーブ条約および追加議定書の基本法則」
については、以下の日赤のサイトから見られる。
http://www.jrc.or.jp/about/humanity/geneva.pdf
(写真を含めて65ページ)

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