海洋法に関する国際連合条約(国連海洋法条約)(抜粋)(和英)
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA




和英両文は必ずしも照応していない。

PREAMBLE

The States Parties to this Convention,

PROMPTED by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and co-operation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,

NOTING that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea,

CONSCIOUS that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole,

RECOGNIZING the desirability of establishing through this Convention, with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,

BEARING IN MIND that the achievement of these goals will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order which takes into account the interests and needs of mankind as a whole and, in particular, the special interests and needs of developing countries, whether coastal or land-locked,

DESIRING by this Convention to develop the principles embodied in resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1970 in which the General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly declared inter ail that the area of the sea-bed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, as well as its resources, are the common heritage of mankind, the exploration and exploitation of which shall be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographic allocation of States,
BELIEVING that the codification and progressive development of the law of the sea achieved in this Convention will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, co-operation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equal rights and will promote the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter,

AFFIRMING that matters not regulated by this Convention continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law,

Have agreed as follows:


1982年12月10日 署 名

1983年 2月 7日 日 本 署 名

1994年11月16日 効 力 発 生

1996年 6月20日 日 本 批 准 書 提 出

1996年 7月20日 日本について効力発生

PART II

TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 2

LEGAL STATUS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA, OF THE AIR SPACE OVER THE TERRITORIAL SEA AND OF ITS BED
AND SUBSOIL

SECTION 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Article 3
BREADTH OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Article 4
OUTER LIMIT OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA


第5条 通常の基線(基線の概要図例へ)
Article 5
NORMAL BASELINE

この条約に特段の定めがある場合を除くほか、領海の幅を測定するための通常の基線は、沿岸国が公認する大縮尺海図
に記載されている海岸の低潮線とする。
Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

第6条 礁
Article 6
REEFS

環礁の上に所在する島又は裾礁を有する島については、領海の幅を測定するための基線は、沿岸国が公認する海図上に適当な記号で示される礁の海側の低潮線とする。
In the case of islands situated on atolls or of islands having fringing reefs, the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is these award low-water line of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

第7条 直線基線
Article 7
STRAIGHT BASELINES

  1.海岸線が著しく屈曲しているか又は海岸に沿って至近距離に一連の島がある場所においては、領海の幅を測定するための基線を引くに当たって、適当な地点を結ぶ直線基線の方法を用いることができる。
1. In localities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

( 2,3省略)

4 直線基線は、低潮高地との間に引いてはならない。ただし、恒久的に海面上にある灯台その他これに類する設備が低潮高地の上に建設されている場合又は低潮高地との間に基線を引くことが一般に国際的な承認を受けている場合は、この限りでない。
4. Straight baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them or except in instances where the drawing of baselines to and from such elevations has received general international recognition.

(5,6省略)

第8条 内水
Article 8

1.第4部に定める場合を除くほか、領海の基線の陸地側の水域は、沿岸国の内水の一部を構成する。
1. Except as provided in Part IV, waters on the land ward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State.

2. 前条に定める方法に従って定めた直線基線がそれ以前には内水とされていなかった水域を内水として取り込むこととなる場合には、この条約に定める無害通行権は、これらの水域において存続する。
2. Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage as provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters.

第9条 河口
Article 9
MOUTHS OF RIVERS

河川が海に直接流入している場合には、基線は、河口を横切りその河川の両岸の低潮線上の点の間に引いた直線とする。
If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks.

第10条 湾
Article 10
BAYS

(1省略)

2この条約の適用上、湾とは、奥行きが湾口の幅との対比において十分に深いため、陸地に囲まれた水域を含み、かつ、単なる海岸のわん曲以上のものを構成する明白な湾入をいう。ただし、湾入は、その面積が湾口を横切って引いた線を直径とする半円の面積以上のものでない限り、湾とはみなされない。
2. For the purposes of this Convention, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation.

(3省略)

4湾の天然の入口の両側の低潮線上の点の間の距離が24海里を超えないときは、これらの点を結ぶ閉鎖線を引き、その線の内側の水域を内水とする。
4. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered as internal waters.

(5,6省略)

第11条 港
Article 11
PORTS

領海の限界の画定上、港湾施設の不可分の一部を成す恒久的な港湾工作物で最も外側にあるものは、海岸の一部を構成するものとみなされる。沖合いの施設及び人工島は、恒久的な港湾工作物とはみなされない。
For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded as forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbour works.

Article 12
ROADSTEADS

第13条 低潮高地
Article 13
LOW-TIDE ELEVATIONS

1 低潮高地とは、自然に形成された陸地であって、低潮時には水に囲まれ水面上にあるが、高潮時には水中に没するものをいう。低潮高地の全部又は一部が本土又島から領海の幅を超えない距離にあるときは、その低潮線は、領海の幅を測定するための基線として用いることができる。
1. A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea.

2 低潮高地は、その全部が本土又は島から領海の幅を超える距離にあるときは、それ自体の領海を有しない。
2. Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own.

Article 14
COMBINATION OF METHODS FOR DETERMINING BASELINES

第15条 向かい合っているか又は隣接している海岸を有する国の間における領海の境界画定
Article 15
DELIMITATION OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA BETWEEN STATES WITH OPPOSITE OR ADJACENT COASTS

二の国の海岸線が向かい合っているか又は隣接しているときは、いずれの国も、両国間に別段の合意がない限り、いずれの点をとっても両国の領海の幅を測定するための基線上の最も近い点から等しい距離にある中間線を越えてその領海を拡張することができない。ただし、この条の規定は、これと異なる方法で両国の領海の境界を定めることが歴史的権原その他特別の事情により必要であるときは、適用しない。
Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured. The above provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two States in a way which is at variance therewith.

第16条 海図及び地理学的経緯度の表
Article 16
CHARTS AND LISTS OF GEOGRAPHICAL CO-ORDINATES

1 第7条、第9条及び第10条の規定に従って決定される領海の幅を測定するための基線又はこれに基づく限界線並びに第 12条及び前条の規定に従って引かれる境界画定線は、それらの位置を確認するのに適した縮尺の海図に表示する。これ に代えて、測地原子を明示した各地点の地理学的経緯度の表を用いることができる。
1. The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in accordance with articles 7, 9 and 10, or the limits
derived therefrom, and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with articles 12 and 15 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Alternatively, a list of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted.

2 沿岸国は、1の海図又は地理学的経緯度の表を適当に公表するものとし、当該海図又は表の写しを国際連合事務総長に寄託する。
2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such
chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.


SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA

SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

第17条 無害通航権
Article 17
RIGHT OF INNOCENT PASSAGE

すべての国の船舶は、沿岸国であるか内陸国であるかを問わず、この条約に従うことを条件として、領海において無害通航権を有する。
Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

Article 18
MEANING OF PASSAGE

1. Passage means navigation through the territorial sea for the purpose of: (a) traversing that sea without entering internal waters or calling at a roadstead or port facility outside internal waters; or (b) proceeding to or from internal waters or a call at such road stead or port facility.

2. Passage shall be continuous and expeditious. However, passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or distress or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distress.

Article 19
MEANING OF INNOCENT PASSAGE

1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law.

2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities:

(a) any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;

(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or security of the coastal State;

(d) any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the coastal State; (e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;

(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device;

(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State;

(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;

(i) any fishing activities;

(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;

(k) any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any other facilities or installations of the coastal State;

(l) any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.

Article 20

SUBMARINES AND OTHER UNDERWATER VEHICLES

In the territorial sea, submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag.


第21条 無害通航に係る沿岸国の法令
Article 21
LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE COASTAL STATE RELATING TO INNOCENT PASSAGE

1 沿岸国は、この条約及び国際法の他の規則に従い、次の事項の全部又は一部について領海における無害通航に係る法令を制定することができる。
1. The coastal State may adopt laws and regulations, in conformity with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law, relating to innocent passage through the territorial sea, in respect of all or any of the following:






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